Leadership in General The study of leadership has an extremely long history, and presently is one of the most popular areas of management study and publishing. Yet, despite this long history of interest in the subject of leadership much is still unknown and unresolved about the idea of leadership. Today, there are many different conceptions about what constitutes leadership and effective leaders. Notice that most people talk about leadership as if they clearly understand what constitutes leadership. They also assume that other people share that unspoken understanding. Yet, both of these assumptions are probably false most of the time. Leadership in General For example, try to clearly and concisely define what you mean by "leadership. " Then ask someone else for their definition of leadership. Can either of you define it well? Do your definitions agree? Are your definitions so broad that they could describe activities that you do not think constitute leadership? Conversely, are your definitions so narrow that they cannot describe leadership in a variety of different situations? Now define "management. Is your definition of "management" different than your definition of "leadership? " Should "management" and "leadership" be defined differently, or are they in reality the same concept? The questions could go on, but you get the point. Leadership is difficult to define and differentiate from other concepts. Now think about what constitutes “effective” leadership? Hundreds, if not thousands, of books on leadership have been published over the past two or three decades. Each book propounds a somewhat unique theory of what constitutes “effective” leadership; each supporting its claims with anecdotes and testimonials. Similarly, magazine articles, television shows, and books constantly herald the newest effective leader. Often, a few years later, either the company fails or the leader acts in a manner that calls into question whether that person ever possessed the leadership qualities and behaviors attributed to him or her. Think about the rise and fall of some chief executive officers over the past few years. But, does defrauding people, ending up in jail, or bankrupting a company necessarily mean that the person was never an effective leader? Also you can read about History of the Culinary Arts. Some might argue the final results determine the effectiveness of leadership; others might argue that it is the process of leading, not the outcome, that defines effective leadership. Despite all this uncertainty, people are so fascinated by the idea of “leaders” that they continue to believe that “leadership” exists and matters. This course cannot possibly reconcile all the competing leadership theories, nor can it do much to explain why some apparently effective leaders fail miserably later, or fail as leaders in some other aspect of their life. Moreover, few of us want to read about every leadership theory ever espoused by someone. Rather, the primary objective of this course (and the textbook) is to introduce you to a variety of different leadership theories that have some research support and have stood the test of time (to varying degrees). When people make conflicting claims about leadership, the scientific model proposes that research should be conducted to determine which of the competing theories has more factual support. Without research, there would be no way to determine which plausible theory better reflects reality, or whether any theory actually reflects reality. Chapter 1- The Nature and Importance of Leadership There are many different definitions of leadership, and the textbook outlines several definitions. However, most definitions have the common theme that leadership is about influencing people to achieve goals that are accepted by the group members, or followers. Notice that this theme doesn't limit leadership to formal leadership positions, nor does it say that there can only be one leader at a time, or that leadership only flows from the "top-down. " The other common theme in many definitions is that leadership is a process, not a role. Thus, many people can be leaders at the same time because all are involved in the leadership process. One person may be more effective than the other people. But all of the people could be acting as "leaders" in the process sense of leadership. In this light, leadership is a broad construct that encompasses many different types of influence from many different types of people in many different types of contexts. While this is a broad definition, maybe more of a description, some people question whether there is any great value in trying to more narrowly define leadership. The study of what determines the effectiveness of different influence techniques in organizations doesn't necessarily require agreement on the definition of the overarching construct, or what is called leadership. On the other hand, the argument can be made that a better definition of leadership helps ensure that everyone is discussing the same concept. There is no clear answer to this debate, but for the purposes of this course leadership refers to the processes that people use to influence other people to achieve accepted goals. The leader is simply the person or persons who are making that influence effort. Another critical point of the chapter is that leadership outcomes result from the reciprocal interactions of the "leader," followers (or "group members"), and the situation. Although we often think of leadership as a one-way influence, the leadership process necessarily includes the context in which the influence attempt occurs (i. e. , the situation) and the object of the influence attempt (i. e. , the followers). Thus, followers shape the leader's behaviors and attitudes just like leaders shape the followers' attitudes and behaviors. In the extreme case of "servant leadership" and "stewardship" models of leadership, the general thrust is that effective leaders focus on aiding or facilitating the followers. This in turn helps the leader accomplish organizational goals. This general framework shapes the organization of the book (see Figure 1-2). The distinction between "leaders" and "manager" is discussed in this chapter (see Table 1-1 Leaders versus Managers). Leader| Manager| Visionary| Rational| Passionate| Businesslike| Creative| Persisitent| Inspiring| Tough-Minded| Innovative| Analytical| Imaginative| Deliberative| Experimental| Authoritative| Warm and Radiant| Cool and reserved| Initiator| Implementer| Acts as a coach, consultant, teacher| Acts as a boss| Does the right things| Does things right| Inspires through great ideas| Commands through position| Knows results are achieved through people| Focuses on results| Focuses on uplifting ideas| Focuses on plumbing| The distinction is largely unproductive because the extent to which a person performs managerial versus leadership roles is largely a question of degree, as the book points out. Managers' jobs are difficult enough without considering them to be second-class citizens incapable of leadership. In fact, effective leaders need to be good managers, and vice versa. This is highlighted in the textbook's discussion of leadership roles because many of them could also be characterized as "managerial" roles. Moreover, according to a common framework proposed by Henry Mintzberg, leadership is only one of many managerial roles. (See Mintzberg, H. (1980). The Nature of Managerial Work. Prentice Hall. ) A major concern relating to the first chapter is the issue of whether leadership makes a difference in reality. While this question could have been put off until the end of the course it is useful to at least think about it now. Then, you can see if your opinions change during the course. Moreover, before devoting time to studying leadership one should know whether the time will be well-spent. The general conclusion is that leadership makes a difference in many cases, but not in all situations. When there are factors that substitute for leadership (or even neutralize leadership attempts), leaders may not be able to make much difference. The book outlines a number of factors that substitute for leadership, but there are many more factors that have been researched with mixed results. In reality, there is no evidence that leadership substitutes always exist, or that they necessarily undercut attempts at leadership. Therefore, people should be careful about attributing success or failures solely to leadership. Leaders can only do so much given the constraints they face. The existence of constraints is the basis for Pfeffer's "leader irrelevance" theory. Similarly, "complexity" theory holds that leaders have little influence in complex organizational systems. For example, look at coaches and managers in profession sports. Often they are fired after poor seasons, yet no new manager or coach can succeed either because their players simply aren't as good as the other players and teams in the league. Usually they have little control over which players are hired, which makes it even more irrational to attribute the success or failure of the coach to his or her leadership ability. Another common example is organizational success in good economic times and organizational downturns in poor economic times. Obviously, the economy is out of any individual's control, so good times and bad times cannot be attributed to the leader. On the next page, you will read an excerpt from an article that suggests that leadership does make a difference. Leadership Makes a Difference Below you can read a short excerpt from an article about Commander D. Michael Abrashoff and what he calls "Grassroots Leadership. " This article suggests that leadership does make a difference. But what makes this a particularlyinteresting leadership anecdote is that it appears that the best explanation for the dramatic improvement on the ship is probably the change in commanders. The reason is that all Navy ships operate under substantially similar rules with basically similar crews. Therefore, when a change occurs on one ship that doesn't occur on other ships, then the change is quite likely due to whatever changed in the situation, in this case the change in leadership. Whether you find the article persuasive or not, the other point is that by the end of the course you should be able to characterize Commander Abrashoff's leadership style in terms of the theories you will be studying in this course. Enlightened Leadership in the U. S. Navy by Jonette Crowley Commander D. Michael Abrashoff had a mission. Through what he calls "Grassroots Leadership," he turned around the operations of the USS Benfold, one of the U. S. Navy's most modern warships. His methods aren't complex, yet the results are astounding. * Under Mike Abrashoff's 20-month command, the Benfold operated on 75% of its allocated budget, returning $1. 4 million to the Navy coffers. * During that time, the ship's combat readiness indicators were the highest ever in the history of the Pacific Fleet. * The promotion rate of his people was 2-1/2 times the Navy average. * The pre-deployment training cycle, which usually takes a total of 52 days, was completed by the Benfold crew in just 19 days. During a 12-month period under the previous command, there were 28 disciplinary actions for which 23 sailors were discharged. During Abrashoff's tenure there were five disciplinary cases and no discharges. * Under his predecessor 31 people were detached from the ship for limited duty, usually for complaints of "bad backs. " He had only two crew members leave for health reasons. * A third of all recruits don't make it through their first term of enlistment, and only 54% of sailors stay in the Navy after their second duty tour. Commander Abrashoff had 100% of the Benfold's career sailors signing on for another tour. It is estimated that this retention alone saved the Navy $1. 6 million in 1998. What did he do to stage such a turnaround in less than 20 months? He asked questions, he listened, he acted on what he heard. Almost immediately upon taking command, he had a 15 to 20 minute personal interview with each of his staff of 300. He asked these questions: * "What do you like best about this ship? " * "What do you like least? " * "What would you change if you could? " He made it a point to "see the ship from the eyes of each crew member. " Abrashoff acted as quickly as he could to institute the ideas that came from these interviews. He focused on what was important: morale and combat readiness. "I didn't put an emphasis on paperwork," says Abrashoff. He encouraged his middle managers (junior officers) to delegate the paperwork that had always swamped them and focus instead on the training that enabled them to run the weapons and the ship. "That inspires confidence in the officers for our combat readiness, and the lower level people loved the responsibility for the paperwork stuff that the officers used to do," the commander reports. Abrashoff analyzed the processes, always assuming that there has got to be a better way. Simply following SOP (Standard Operating Procedures), or doing things the way they've always been done, didn't hold water. The rules were changed or bent, always with the vision in mind of doing what was best for the crew. "Saving money wasn't the focus, it was a by-product of efficiency. We did things right the first time. " He set the vision and trusted his crew. He helped people take pride in their work. "I gave my officers my trust and free rein. They didn't want to lose that trust. " Abrashoff said, "I focused on doing right by the crew, not by the admirals. I didn't even care if I ever got promoted again. That gave me the freedom to do what made sense. " One of the biggest complaints was the food, so he sent five of the Benfold's cooks to culinary school. The ship is now known as having some of the best food in the Navy, making it a showcase for VIPs. By focusing on the needs and ideas of his people, by relaxing the rules, by giving control over to his officers, a ship's culture has been changed, and with it the lives and confidence of scores of young sailors. A "virtuous cycle" has been set up that is continuing to inspire the crew to do even better. Even after Mike Abrashoff has taken up other duties at his home base in San Diego, the USS Benfold continues to have the highest combat readiness indicators ever seen in the entire Pacific Fleet. © 1999 Enlightened Leadership Int'l, Inc. Enlightened Leadership International Transforming Organizations Through People www. enleadership. com [email protected] com 800-798-9881 or 303-729-0540 Chapter 2 - Traits, Motives and Characteristics of Leaders Trait-based theories of leadership are among the oldest leadership theories, and they are still considered somewhat important today. The earliest theories were "universal" theories that tried to find the leader's personal qualities that differentiated effective from ineffective leaders in all situations. Although these personal characteristics and qualities are usually called traits, they are not limited to personality traits (inner qualities). For example, the textbook refers to many different personal characteristics, including personality traits, in Chapter 2. Unfortunately, the trait approach does not tell us which traits are most important, in which situations or how much of a trait is required. The biggest problem was that people who possessed the traits deemed critical were not always leaders, i. e. , the traits were necessary, but not sufficient for leadership. Moreover, trait-based theories cannot explain why people are not always successful leaders in all situations. History is full of military leaders who were effective in war, but not in peace. The converse is also true. On the other hand, recent research has found that some traits are important in a wide-variety of situations, but not all situations. In addition, in specific situations there are likely to be specific traits that are important. The "trait-based" theories do not limit themselves to personality traits, so do not be fooled into limiting the scope of the personal qualities to personality dimensions. The theories include any characteristic on which individuals differ, such as intelligence, physical characteristics, attitudes, values, and personality traits, to name a few. At some point, the distinction between a trait and a behavior is blurred, but in general the distinction is between "who you are" versus "what you do. " The textbook lists a wide-range of traits found to be important, and categorizes them into: * Personality Traits Motives and Drives * Power Motive * Tenacity * Strong Work Ethic * Drive and Achievement Motive * Cognitive Factors * Analytical Intelligence * Knowledge of the business * Creativity * Insight into people and situations * Farsightedness and conceptual thinking While you don't need to memorize every possible leadership trait, it is worthwhile reading the lists. You should be able to recognize the most important traits. Perhaps more importantly, you should be able to reject some traits as unrelated to effective leadership, such as gender and race. In conclusion, research suggests that effective leaders possess different personal characteristics than ineffective leaders or non-leaders. Knowing which traits are associated with leadership effectiveness helps in the selection of leaders. To the extent you can train people to develop a trait, knowing the importance of different traits helps organizations to design leadership development programs. For example, some aspects of emotional intelligence, which is a collection of traits and behaviors, can be taught and practiced. The trait-based approach to leadership is less valuable ecause present research cannot definitively specify which traits, and how much of those traits, are most useful in a specific situation. General Comments about Assignments Write your answers and comments concisely, answering the question(s) as directly as possible. Remember, you must answer the questions about cases using the facts of the case and the concepts introduced in the textbook and any additional readings. The general format for all your case answers is to relate the concepts and principles from the textbook or other readings to the facts in the case. Reporting all sorts of background information is unnecessary. However, you do need to refer back to the facts in the case that support your statements and conclusions. Your answer will be graded on the quality of your analysis and its clarity. It is difficult to describe the length of and amount of detail that should be in good answers. Obviously, this is a judgment call that varies case by case, and question by question. However, usually you can write good answers in 500-700 words per case, although obviously this varies according to the number of questions you are asked to answer. You may exceed the word limits without penalty when necessary to adequately answer the questions. Review the Syllabus for more information on answering case assignment questions, but in general good tests of the quality of your analysis is to ask yourself "Does this answer show that I read and understood the material in the text? " and "Could I have written this answer without reading the book? " As for the self-assessment exercises in this course, if there is more than one self-assessment exercise assigned during the week, then you must submit all of your scores and comments in one assignment submission. When more than one self-assessment exercise is assigned in a week, clearly identify the separate exercises. Don't forget to discuss whether you think the score is an accurate reflection of you or the person being evaluated. Other reflections are also valuable. Refer to the Syllabus for more detailed comments about answering questions and the grading standards. The Syllabus controls in the event of some accidental inconsistency between the Weekly Schedule and the Syllabus. General Instructions for Submitting Assignments What follows is a brief review of how to submit assignments. For details, efer to the Welcome page. Submit your answers to the assignments by locating the assignment within each weekly module. You can also find the list of assignments by going to the Assignments tool over in the toolbar on the left. But if you only use the toolbar, you may miss important information that is contained within each weekly module. Make certain you choose the correct assignment and submit the correct answer for that assignment. This week you will be submitting"1. 1 - Week 1 Case Assignment" for your answer to the case assignment and "1. 2 - Week 1 Self-Assessment Exercise" for your self-assessment answers. Next week and in the following weeks, the set-up will always be the same. You will NOT be attaching a document to submit. I suggest you compose your answer in a Word document so that you can edit and spell check but for submission, copy and paste your answer into the text box under the word "submission" in the assignment tool. If you submit the answer to the wrong link, your answer will not be graded. You can be penalized for late submissions, as outlined in the Syllabus. Required Readings The following items are required reading for this week: DuBrin, A. (2013) Leadership: Research Findings, Practices, and Skills (7th ed). Mason, OH: South-Western * Chapter 1: The Nature and Importance of Leadership * Chapter 2: Traits, Motives and Characteristics of Leaders Copies of these two chapters are included in the "Textbook eReserves" folder on the Course Homepage for your convenience. If you have not yet purchased your textbook, you should do so immediately. Please go to MBS Direct to find the appropriate textbooks for this course. Discussions After reading the course materials and required readings, you should be prepared to participate in our weekly discussion. * Week 1 Discussion - Effective Leaders Identify a person you interact with and regard as an effective leader. * What traits described by DuBrin in Chapter 2 apply to this person? * What traits do not apply? * Do these affect his or her overall performance? If so, how?? Once you post your answer please respond to at least one other students' post. A link to the discussion can be found on the following page. Assignments Please complete the following assignments and submit via the Assignments tool. You will find a link to each of these assignments within this module. Directions for completing the assignments can be found in the syllabus. Remember to use the text box for your submission - Do not attach a document. * Case Study * Ch. 1 Leadership Case Problem A - Mike Todman Makes a Splash at Whirlpool. Pgs. 30-31 * Questions 1, 2, and 3. * Self Assessments * Ch. 1 Quiz 1-1 Readiness of the Leadership Role. Pgs. 11 – 12 * Ch. 2 Quiz 2-2 Behaviors and Attitudes of a Trustworthy Leader. Pg. 42 This week you will continue studying leader traits in the context of charismatic leaders and transformational leaders. Charisma is clearly a trait the some people possess, which suggests it may be difficult to teach, i. e. the "right stuff" of leadership. However, there is some evidence that if a person exhibits behaviors that followers associate with charismatic people, the person will be seen as charismatic. Thus, perhaps charisma can be taught, or, at least, faked. When a leader's charisma is oriented towards transforming an organization, it becomes one factor in transformational leadership. However, transformational leadership encompasses more than charismatic leaders. Transformational leaders focus on developing the followers and getting them to direct their efforts towards changing the status quo. This contrasts with the idea of "transactional" leaders who primarily focus on exchanges with the followers that result in the maintenance of the status quo. Thus, transformational leadership relates to organization development and change; therefore, this aspect of leadership is taught in most organizational behavior courses. Then we completely shift the focus away from "trait-based" theories of leadership to "behavior-based" or "behavioral" leadership theories. Behavioral theories suggest that "leaders can be made" by teaching would-be leaders the behaviors used by effective leaders. As you will see, leader's traits are not part of this group of leadership theories, although they may predispose people to behave certain ways. Basically, the simplest model divides leader behaviors into relationship-oriented and task- or performance-oriented behaviors. There are many variations on this dichotomy, which is the main point of the chapter. Several "universal" models of leadership emerged from the research on leader behaviors, but like the universal "trait" models studied last week, the models do not explain why the same leader behaviors are effective in one situation and not in another. However, pay attention to these behavioral models because they form the bases for many of the contingency theories you will see later in the course. Leadership studies conducted at Ohio State University identified the importance of two broadly defined categories of leadership, "consideration" and "initiating structure". Consideration is the degree to which leaders interact with others in a friendly and supportive manner. Initiating structure, the second factor, represents how the leader structures his or her subordinate's roles to accomplish common objectives. The Ohio State studies were accompanied by a comprehensive research program at the University of Michigan. The focus of the research at Michigan was on relationships related to leader behavior, group processes and group performance. The principle types of leader behavior identified in the Michigan studies were "job centered" which is similar to consideration and "employee centered" which is similar to initiating structure. Required Readings The following items are required reading for this week: DuBrin, A. (2013) Leadership: Research Findings, Practices, and Skills (7th ed). Mason, OH: South-Western * Chapter 3: Charisma and Transformational Leadership * Chapter 4: Leadership Behaviors, Attitudes and Styles Additional Readings * Review the article on leadership and emotional intelligence: Goleman, D. , Boyatzis, R. , & McKee, A. (2001). Primal Leadership: The Hidden Driver of Great Performance. Harvard Business Review, 79(11), 42-51. This and other articles are available from the library website. Click on the Library link in the Course Menu to get direct access to the Webster University library. Be sure to read the material before doing the assignments and discussions. Hover your mouse here: Directions for accessing the Library to see the steps for accessing a database in the Webster University Library. 1. The Library link under the Course Menu on the left side of your course page will take you directly to the Library Resources for Walker School of Business and Technology. 2. In the area "Find other database content by subject: Choose Business and Financials 3. On the right side of the page, under More Information, choose Journal/magazine/newspaper list. 4. In Find the Journal title, type Harvard Business Review and click Search. 5. The journal will be identified on the next page. Click on Look up Article. 6. In the box that says "Article Title" type "Primal Leadership" and in the Date box type "2001" then click Search. 7. The next page lets you know the article is available. Click Article. 8. On the Journal/Magazine/Newspaper List page, at the middle of the page where it indicates “Find a journal title”, enter Harvard Business Review and click on Search 9. You will be required to enter your last name, your student number, and EWL at the end of your student number to gain access to the library databases. Chapter 3 - Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Charismatic Leadership The oldest line of leadership research appears to be the search for the defining traits of leaders. One line of this research was the attempt to explain charismatic leaders. Charismatic leaders are so exciting, stimulating, magnetic, and visionary that followers willingly accept their leadership. This clearly roots the idea of charismatic leadership in the realm of trait-based leadership models. As you might expect, the original theorizing about charismatic leaders was not in the organizational context, but around religion and social movements. There are several theories of charismatic leadership, and according to most, charismatic leaders have the following attributes: Charismatic Leadership Attributes| They have compelling visions. | They have masterful communication skills. | They have the ability to inspire trust. | They are able to make group members feel capable. | They have energy and an action orientation. | They have emotional expressiveness and warmth. | They romanticize and take personal risks. | They use unconventional strategies. | They have a self-promoting personality. | They challenge followers. | They are dramatic and unique. | There are a variety of charismatic leaders, but the most important distinctions are between leaders with personalized power motives versus leaders with socialized power motives. A socialized charismatic leader uses power to benefit the followers and the group, whereas the personalized charismatic leader uses power to serve his or her own interests. This may or may not help the group attain its goals, but attaining those goals is not the focus of the personalized charismatic leader. Research suggests that a person can increase his or her charisma by copying the behaviors of charismatic leaders. These behaviors include the following: 1. Articulate compelling visions for the future 2. Be enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic (perhaps these are traits, but you can act like you are enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic) 3. Persist in the face of adversity 4. Personalize your interactions with people, such as remembering their names 5. Maintain your physical appearance 6. Appear to be candid 7. Reject the status quo or be defiant. Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership is related to charismatic leadership, but this newer group of theories focuses not on the leader's traits, but on the transformation of the organization. Perhaps being charismatic helps, but it is not enough to transform an organization. The transformational leader helps bring about major, positive changes in the organization. Four factors are seen as elements of transformational leadership are : * charisma * inspirational leadership * intellectual stimulation * individualized consideration According to one transformational leadership theory, the transformational leaders can be contrasted with a transactional leader. The transactional leader focuses on routine, day-to-day exchanges (or transactions) with the followers. The transactional leader rewards followers who meet existing standards of performance. While the concept of transactional leadership highlights the distinction between maintaining versus transforming an organization, the concept is not used much. Instead, the research focus has been on the more specific theories that you will learn later in the course, such as behavioral or contingency theories of leadership. Chapter 4 - Leadership Behaviors, Attitudes, and Styles This chapter introduces students to research on leadership behaviors, sometimes called leadership styles. When the research on leader traits and other characteristics was relatively unsuccessful in explaining leadership, the research changed orientation from "what a leader is like" to "what a leader does. " The focus was on leaders' behaviors, not on their underlying traits. This was a somewhat optimistic shift as well because this line of research indicated that leaders could be trained. This is in contrast to the "leaders are born" orientation of the trait-based leadership research. There are relatively few important behavior-based universal models, and most have been superseded by newer contingency models (discussed in Chapter 5). Knowing these early behavior-based models are important for a couple reasons. First, knowing them help students appreciate how leadership models evolve. Second, they are important because contingency theories (discussed in Chapter 5) attempt to incorporate these behaviors into their frameworks. Behavior-based Leadership Models Researchers at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan were among the first to study what behaviors were used by eff In case you have a similar assignment feel free to ask for homework help. Generally, EssayPro has the best academic writers with extensive experience in handling diverse types of orders including case studies, argumentative essays, PowerPoint presentations, admission essays, blog articles, market research, thesis, project proposal, literature review, among other forms of writing.